Prof. Dr. Michael FREDHOLM is an historian and defence analyst who has written extensively on the history, defence strategies, security policies, and energy sector developments of Eurasia. He is currently affiliated to the
Stockholm International Program for Central Asian Studies (SIPCAS), which originated at Stockholm University and since 2012 is based at the Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul. At SIPCAS, he has made a special study of Central Asian geopolitics, Afghanistan, Islamic extremism, and the causes of and defence strategies against terrorism. He has worked as an independent academic advisor to governmental, inter-governmental, and
non-governmental bodies for more than two decades, including on Foreign Ministry official reports on Eastern Europe, Russia, Central Asia, and failing states. Educated at Uppsala, Stockholm, and Lund Universities, Michael
Fredholm taught at Stockholm University (South and Central Asia Programme), Uppsala University (Orientalist Programme), the Swedish Royal
Military Academy and Defence Academy (various courses), and a special educational and advisory programme on East Asia for the Commander-in-Chief. He also lectured, during conferences or as visiting professor, at numerous institutions and universities in cities around the world including Ankara, Bishkek, Istanbul, Kolkata, Krynica, Madrid, New Delhi, Oslo,Shanghai, Srinagar, Stockholm, Tashkent, Tsukuba, and Vilnius.