Towards a Common European Policy on Security and Defence: Challenges for the "Post Neutrals".
erschienen in der Publikation "Security Political Dialogue 1999 (2/01)" (ISBN: 3-901328-57-2) - Juni 2001
Autor(en):Brigadier Mag. Gustav E. Gustenau
First, how will the operations for crisis management in the framework of the WEU, the so called Petersberg tasks, be shaped?
Second, will essential functions of the WEU actually be transferred into the EU?
And last, how do "post neutral" countries such as Austria deal with the forthcoming challenges in the national political and also military area?
In some neutral or non-aligned states, especially also in Austria, a discussion on the further development of the CFSP has been going on for some time, to the effect that it would be required, in particular, to create a "European Security Union" widely independent of NATO, or at least widely politically emancipated from the USA Therefore it seems appropriate to first provide a rough outline of the development of the CFSP.
With the Treaty of Maastricht of December 1991 the CFSP was formed, including "the eventual framing of a common defence policy, which might in time lead to a common defence" (Art. J 4 par. 1). A functional relationship with the WEU was established as well. At the WEU ministerial meeting in Petersberg in 1992, an explicit separation of Article V and non-Art. V contingencies was undertaken. Under the so-called "Petersberg tasks", military units of WEU member states, acting now under the authority of WEU, can be employed for: humanitarian and rescue tasks, peacekeeping tasks and tasks of combat forces in crises management, including peacemaking.
Within the framework of the NATO summit in Brussels in January of 1994, the relationship with the USA and the role of the European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI) within NATO were to be clarified. In doing so, the Europeans recognised NATO as Europe´s essential security forum and acknowledged the strengthening of the European pillar of NATO, which was to take place by the development of the WEU. On the other hand, the political and military structure of NATO was to support the activation of the ESDI, which was to be enabled by the Combined Joint Task Forces (CJTF) concept and the reliance on NATO assets in WEU operations. With this, the measures for a provision of "separable but not separate capabilities" for WEU-led operations were introduced. Let us also recall the resolutions of the North Atlantic Council of Berlin in June of 1996, where the Europeans explicitly agreed "to build a European Security and Defence Identity within NATO".